Keunggulan Kompetitif E-BUSINESS


Dalam mengimplementasikan konsep e-business, terlihat jelas bahwa meraih keunggulan kompetitif (competitive advantage) jauh lebih mudah dibandingkan mempertahankannya.

Secara teoritis hal tersebut dapat dijelaskan karena adanya karakteristik sebagai berikut:

  1. Pada level operasional, yang terjadi dalam e-business adalah restrukturisasi dan redistribusi dari bit-bit digital (digital management), sehingga mudah sekali bagi perusahaan untuk meniru model bisnis dari perusahaan lain yang telah sukses;
  2. Berbeda dengan bisnis konvensional dimana biasanya sebuah kantor beroperasi 8 jam sehari, di dalam business (internet), perusahaan harus mampu melayani pelanggan selama 7 hari seminggu dan 24 jam sehari, karena jika tidak maka dengan mudah kompetitor akan mudah menyaingi perusahaan terkait;
  3. Berjuta-juta individu (pelanggan) dapat berinteraksi dengan berjuta-juta perusahaan yang terkoneksi di internet, sehingga sangat mudah bagi mereka untuk pindah-pindah perusahaan dengan biaya yang sangat murah (rendahnya switching cost);
  4. Fenomena jejaring (internetworking) memaksa perusahaan untuk bekerja sama dengan berbagai mitra bisnis untuk dapat menawarkan produk atau jasa secara kompetitif, sehingga kontrol kualitas, harga, dan kecepatan penciptaan sebuah produk atau jasa kerap sangat ditentukan oleh faktor-faktor luar yang tidak berada di dalam kontrol perusahaan; dan
  5. Mekanisme perdagangan terbuka dan pasar bebas (serta teori perfect competition) secara tidak langsung telah terjadi di dunia internet, sehingga seluruh dampak atau dalil-dalil sehubungan dengan kondisi market semacam itu berlaku terjadi di dunia maya.

Melihat kenyataan di atas, perusahaan harus memiliki kriteria-kriteria (critical success factors) dan ukuran-ukuran (performance indicators) yang dapat dijadikan sebagai barometer sukses tidaknya perusahaan dalam memiliki dan mempertahankan keunggulun kompetitif tertentu.

Beberapa teori keunggulan kompetitif di dunia maya menganjurkan agar paling tidak 7 (tujuh) aspek harus menjadi perhatian dari sebuah perusahaan, yaitu masing-masing:

  1. Customer Service
  2. Price
  3. Quality
  4. Fulfillment Time
  5. Agility
  6. Time to Market
  7. Market Reach

Kondisi ketujuh aspek tersebut akan sangat menentukan posisi perusahaan di dalam kancah persaingan di dunia maya.

e-Business Leadership
Perusahaan dikatakan memiliki keungguluan kompetitif jika sanggup menjadi pemimpin (penguasa market share) dibandingkan dengan pesaing lainnya di industri yang relatif sama. Ditinjau dari aspek kepada pelanggan, perusahaan berhasil menciptakan sebuah pendekatan baru dan unik di dalam mengelola komunikasi dan interaksi dengan pelanggannya.

Tujuan dari pendekatan ini adalah untuk mendapatkan sebuah suasana yang kerap diistilahkan dengan “customer intimacy”; jalinan keakraban antara pelanggan dengan perusahaan sehingga mereka selalu loyal dengan perusahaan tersebut.

Pada kondisi ini pun perusahaan berhasil menawarkan harga yang jauh lebih murah dibandingkan dengan perusahaan lain, tanpa mengorbankan kualitas dan pelayanan kepada pelanggan.

Situasi ini akan berhasil dipertahankan oleh perusahaan jika yang bersangkutan memiliki mitra-mitra bisnis yang efisien dalam pengelolaan rantai nilai (value chain) untuk masing-masing proses terkait. Maka tidak heran jika konsep CRM (Customer Relationship Management) sedang menjadi primadona saat ini.

Disamping itu, kecepatan penciptaan produk baru (time to market) dan kecepatan pengirimannya ke tangan pelanggan juga menjadi kriteria utama yang menjadi bahan pertimbangan posisi perusahaan di dunia persaingan.

Semakin cepat pelanggan dapat memperoleh produk pesanannya, semakin baik. Dan tentu saja perusahaan akan berhasil mencapai kondisi ini jika manajemen rantai pasokannya (Supply Chain Management) terkelola secara optimal. Karena di dalam e-business informasi merupakan bahan baku produksi yang sangat penting, maka konsep JIT (Just-In Time) sering diberlakukan terhadap sumber daya informasi ini.

Faktor lainnya yang menentukan keunggulan kompetitif sebuah perusahaan adalah kemampuannya dalam menjangkau pasar dan pelanggan dari berbagai segmen yang ada (demografis dan geografis). Di sinilah internet dan teknologi informasi memberikan peranan yang sangat besar.

e-Business Stagnation
Kebalikan dengan perusahaan e-business yang berhasil menjadi market leader, gagal mendapatkan keunggulan kompetitif akan berakibat terancamnya keberadaan perusahaan di dalam arena persaingan. Perusahaan yang tidak berhasil mencari strategi untuk mendapatkan keunggulan kompetitif ini biasanya akan berada dalam posisi stagnasi, yang tentu saja akan sangat berbahaya jika tetap dibiarkan.

Ciri-ciri perusahaan yang berada di dalam situasi ini berawal dari semakin kecilnya market share yang dikuasai karena banyaknya pelanggan yang perlahanlahan meninggalkan perusahaan.

Menurunnya kuantitas pelanggan ini terkadang belum tentu disebabkan karena gagalnya perusahaan dalam meningkatkan kinerja usahanya, namun dapat juga karena adanya faktor eksternal, seperti persaingan yang sangat ketat. Sering pula terjadi situasi dimana kualitas produk yang baik tidak disertai dengan pelayanan yang baik menyebabkan buruknya persepsi dari pelanggan terhadap perusahaan (yang artinya mengurangi bahkan meniadakan keuggulan kompetitif yang dicoba diraih).

Dari segi total biaya produksi yang berdampak langsung kepada penentuan harga produk dan jasa, biasanya perusahaan mengalami kesulitan karena adanya fenomena cost transparency.

Dengan terbukanya berbagai jenis informasi bagi semua orang di internet, pelanggan dapat dengan mudah membandingkan harga produk atau jasa yang sama dari satu perusahaan ke perusahaan yang lain.

Dengan kata lain, sangat sulit bagi sebuah perusahaan dalam menentukan harga yang kompetitif (sangat sulit untuk mendapatkan margin keuntungan yang tinggi).

Demikian pula dari segi penciptaan produk baru dan pengirimannya ke pihak pelanggan. Pada keadaan stagnasi, durasi penciptaan produk baru dan pengirimannya biasanya standar, dalam arti kata sama dengan perusahaan perusahaan sejenis lainnya, sehingga dipandang dari sudut pelanggan, perusahaan yang bersangkutan tidak memiliki hal yang istimewa.

Seringkali perusahaan e-business yang berada pada kondisi ini digambarkan dengan entiti yang “hidup segan, mati tak hendak”.

Diperlukan perubahan yang sangat mendasar dari manajemen puncak untuk dapat membawa kembali perusahaan ke arena persaingan yang kompetitif (misalnya dengan cara mengadakan program Business Process Reengineering).

e-Business Followership
Jika di satu titik ekstrem terdapat perusahaan e-business yang berhasil menjadi leader sementara di titik ekstrem lainnya terdapat perusahaan e-business yang terancam bangkrut, terdapat banyak sekali perusahaan (mayoritas) yang berada pada situasi “nanggung”, artinya yang bersangkutan menempatkan diri sebagai pengikut dari mereka yang berhasil (follower).

Walaupun perusahaan yang berada di dalam posisi ini tidak memiliki banyak keunggulan kompetitif seperti halnya perusahaan leader, namun kualitas produk dan pelayanannya berada di atas rata-rata yang diharapkan oleh pelanggan.

Perusahaan dalam kategori ini biasanya memiliki produk dengan kualitas yang sudah baik (memenuhi standar minimum), namun di mata pelanggan kualitasnya dipandang lebih karena perusahaan memiliki mekanisme pelayanan yang baik (sehingga pelanggan merasa terpuaskan).

Dari sergi harga produk dan jasa pun perusahaan berhasil menekan total biaya produksi karena tingginya tingkat efisiensi yang dicapai (karena memanfaatkan teknologi informasi). Perusahaan juga secara sederhana telah menerapkan konsep knowledge management yang memungkinkan mereka untuk memperbaiki durasi penciptaan produk baru dan pengirimannya ke tangan pelanggan.

Perusahaan yang memiliki keungguluan kompetitif yang netral ini biasanya tidak berambisi untuk menguasai pasar, tetapi cukup untuk tetap aman bertahan di arena persaingan, dan memiliki pelanggan tetap (captive market) yang melakukan transaksi secara kontinyu. Targetnya adalah secara perlahan (gradual) perusahaan berhasil meningkatkan frekuensi dan volume transaksi jual belinya.

Ref: Richardus Eko Indrajit

Amazon Online Bizz Store


www.AsianBrain.com

Klub Bisnis Internet Berorientasi Action

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